Green House Gas Emmission
The Greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that insulates the Earth from the cold of space. As incoming solar radiations is adsorbed and re-emitted back from the Earth’s surface as infrared energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere prevents a portion of this heat from escaping into space, instead re-emitting the energy back to further warm the surface. Human activities are amplifying the natural greenhouse effect. Our emissions of GHGs are modifying the Earth’s energy balance between incoming solar radiation and the heat released back into space, resulting in climate change.

The climate change is altaring temperature, precipitation and sea levels and will adversely impact human and natural systems including water resources, human health, human settlements, and ecosystems/biodiversity. The unprecedented acceleration of climate change model over the last 50 years and the increasing confidence in global climate model results add to the compelling evidence that climate is being effected in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activities.

There are several GHGs of which Water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide are naturally accruing and also generated by industrial processes. CO2 and methane are emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Land use change and deforestation are significant sources of CO2 emission.

UN Initiative: Climate change is a global problem that will require global cooperation. The objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which virtually all nations have ratified, is to stabilize the atmosphere CO2 concentration at a level that will not cause "dangerous" human interference with the climate change. This will require reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and switching over to a wide range of alternatives sources of energy.

The Kyoto Protocol: The Kyoto Protocol came into force on February 16, 2005. The Protocol established mandatory, enforceable targets for GHG emissions. The overall GHG emissions goal is 5% below the 1990 level to be achieved between 2008 to 2012. The Protocol is based on three GHG emission reduction mechanisms.

  • Joint implementation involves one country receiving emission reduction credits for implementing projects that reduce emissions or sequester carbon in another country that has an emission limit (eg. Netherlands is implementing methane capture projects in Germany)
  • The Clean Development Mechanism allows countries with emission limits to receive emission reduction credits from implementing projects that reduce emissions or sequester carbon in another country that does not have an emission limit (eg Finland is receiving credits from developing biomass-based powder plant in India)
  • Emission trading distributes permits equal to an allowed level of emission to each country. Countries with emissions below their allowance are able to sell their excess permits to other countries that have exceeded their emissions allowance.